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Thread: Global Cooling

  1. #451
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    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  2. #452
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    VIEW IMAGES

    COLD COMFORT The poor died in their hovels, and the rich shivered in their grand palaces, such as Versailles near Paris, where one correspondent could “barely hold the pen.”
    PHOTOGRAPH BY RIEGER BERTRAND, GTRES



    In the Adriatic, the freeze left numerous ships trapped in the ice, their crews perishing from cold and hunger. In Venice, ice skates were used in place of the usual gondolas to get around the city. Rome and Florence were completely cut off by the heavy snowfalls. In Spain, the Ebro River iced over, and even balmy Valencia saw its olive trees destroyed by the cold.

    The weather also had political ramifications. Hostilities between France and Britain in the War of the Spanish Succession were delayed until the weather warmed. More significantly, historians regard the victory of Peter the Great’s Russia over Sweden at the Battle of Poltava in June 1709 as a decisive moment in Russia’s transformation into a regional power. Peter owed his victory, in part, to a smaller, weaker Swedish army, many of whose soldiers had perished due to the winter’s frigid temperatures.

    L’ČTAT, C’EST FROID







    Battle of Malplaquet September 1709, by Louis Laguerre, 1713
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRIDGEMAN/ACI

    Louis XIV ruled France for 72 years, and 1709 was one of the worst. His country bore the brunt of the deep freeze, its population and resources decimated. At the same time, his army faced major setbacks in the War of the Spanish Succession. In September 1709, France was defeated by Britain at the Battle of Malplaquet.




    SPRING FEVER


    The glacial conditions, however, were only the first of a series of woes to beset Europe that year. Temperatures remained abnormally low until mid-April, but the snow and ice, when they finally thawed, brought floods.

    Disease thrived throughout the year. A flu epidemic had broken out in Rome in late 1708, and the following winter’s cold and hunger only helped spread the virus, turning into a Europe-wide pandemic in 1709 and 1710. To compound the disaster, plague also arrived that year from the Ottoman Empire via Hungary.

    But of all the ills stalking Europe, hunger was, in many ways, the worst. The consequences of the food shortage lingered throughout that year and into the next. Cereals, vines, vegetables, fruit trees, flocks, and herds were all laid to waste, and the next summer’s harvest had not even been planted. The situation sparked hikes in grain prices, with prices rising sixfold during 1709.

    In France, King Louis XIV organized handouts of bread and obliged the aristocracy to do the same. He also attempted to register all grain stores in order to avoid hoarding, sending out inspectors to ensure that the rules were obeyed. But against the unrelenting misery of the times, such measures must have seemed paltry. Episodes of violence ensued, and peasants who had been reduced to eating soup made of ferns formed gangs to raid bakeries and ambush grain convoys.

    “The Great Frost” and its deadly aftermath unleashed tragic consequences for hundreds of thousands of people. In France, the population dropped in the course of 1709-1710, a period in which there were 600,000 more deaths than an average year at the time, and 200,000 fewer births—a population deficit that hobbled an already weak economy.

    WINTER WASTELAND








    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRITISH MUSEUM/SCALA, FLORENCE

    The Italian painter and engraver Giuseppe Maria Mitelli (1634-1718) depicted the catastrophic events that spread through the whole of Europe: starvation, poverty, deadly temperatures, war, and sickness. Although the wealthy were affected by the cold, the suffering of the poor was much greater on all fronts.
    1. “Hunger and poverty” The diet of the poor, based on cereals and lacking in meat, caused widespread malnutrition and death.
    2. “Great Cold and nakedness” Mitelli vividly depicts how the cold caused shortages of fuel and warm attire.
    3. “War for all” War between Britain and France led to the loss of 30,000 lives at the Battle of Malplaquet in fall 1709.
    4. “Illness and death” Disease preyed on a weakened population, extending the misery well into 1710.




    CAUSE OF THE COLD


    Its record as the coldest winter in Europe in half a millennium remains unsurpassed, a freakish freeze that still puzzles climatologists today. Various theories for the event have been put forward. In previous years, a number of volcanoes around Europe had erupted, including Teide (on the Canary Islands), Santorini (in the eastern Mediterranean), and Vesuvius (near Naples). Huge quantities of dust and ash in the atmosphere reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth. The year 1709 also falls within the period known by climatologists as the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), when the sun’s emission of solar energy was significantly diminished. Whether these events combined to create Europe’s glacial catastrophe that winter remains a matter of heated debate.
    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  3. #453
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    HISTORY MAGAZINE

    Winter Is Coming: Europe’s Deep Freeze of 1709






    In the first months of 1709, Europe froze and stayed that way for months. People ice-skated on the canals of Venice, church bells broke when rung, and travelers could cross the Baltic Sea on horseback. This freakish winter ultimately claimed the lives of a vast number of Europeans and disrupted two major wars—but to this day, there is no conclusive theory for its cause.




















    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  4. #454
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    All I know is that for the last week North Carolina, USA, has had single-digit (F) temperatures at night, with undeniable wind chill factors, and even a light (1") layer of snow!

    Bring on the global warming! Where's that temperate winter we had in 2010-11? I was able to paint the eaves on my house that winter, and worked outdoors almost every day!

  5. #455
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    Wink

    My bird bath's water froze on top

    three times overnight this winter,

    but please do not tell anyone of

    our temperate winter this year.

    Hush! No room for outsiders,

    roads bumper to bumper.

    Yankees go home.


  6. #456
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    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  7. #457
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    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  8. #458
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    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  9. #459
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    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

  10. #460
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    "Form is paramount.
    Price is approximate.
    Time is least reliable."

    by Robert Prechter.

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